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In terms of human development, the past one hundred years has probably witnessed a greater change than any comparable period.
From standards and values, to textiles and technology, the world is now a very different place to that known by our grandparents and great grandparents.
Therefore this document hopes to provide a brief insight into this bygone age, by revealing some of the wisdoms which then prevailed, all extracted from a variety of contemporary publications.
In fact some may still be relevant. However, should any be put to the test, then of course no responsibility can be accepted for the results!


If you peel onions under a running tap, you will find that your eyes will not water.

Salt and paraffin will take the most obstinate stains out of a sink.

Cold tea will remove the smell of fish from frying pans, plates, and so on.

Artichokes will keep their whiteness if a little vinegar is added to the water.

To prevent the smell of vegetables from pervading the house while cooking, get a few sandalwood chips and throw two or three on the stove.

Wringing out a cloth in hot water and wiping the furniture before putting on furniture cream will result in a high polish that will not finger mark.

A little dry mustard rubbed on the hands will remove the smell of fish from them.

There is nothing better than ammonia and water for removing grease spots from a carpet.

Allow cabbage water to become cold before pouring down the sink, and there will be no unpleasant smell.

To keep sausages from bursting, you should roll them in flour before frying.

Mice do not like the smell of peppermint, and a little oil of peppermint placed about their haunts will soon make them look for other quarters.

To prevent eggs from bursting while boiling, prick one end with a needle before placing in the water.

To exterminate beetles, squeeze some wet tea leaves and lay on sheets of paper. Place these around where beetles frequent. The tannin on the leaves kills the insects.

To remove ink stains from washing materials, squeeze a little tomato juice on the stain, and leave for a few minutes before washing. The stain will disappear easily.

If a cork is soaked in boiling water for ten minutes it will easily fit into any bottle.

Vinegar in washing up water removes grease, brightens china, and is a good disinfectant.

Hot water loosens the skin and accelerates the formation of lines. If you wash your face with warm water, finish by rinsing with cold.

If your house seems damp, try placing camphor balls on sheets of paper in all four corners of rooms liable to dampness. The balls decrease gradually in size and should then be replaced with fresh ones. This is an absolutely reliable method for removing dampness.

If an article has been scorched in ironing, wet in cold water and lay where the bright sunshine will fall directly on it. This will take the mark entirely out.

A piece of clean chamois leather wrung out of cold water is the best duster for velvet or plush furniture.

The right way to peel onions is to begin at the root of the onion, peeling upwards; the juice will not then fly into your eyes.

Use equal parts of vinegar and salt to clean tarnished brass. Rub with the mixture thoroughly, letting it dry on, then wash off in warm, soapy water and polish with a soft cloth.

Cut a piece off the ends of potatoes before they are roasted. This will let out any moisture and make them mealy.

If you suffer from rheumatism, eat boiled celery and drink the water. If you suffer from gout, have carrots. Have a raw or boiled onion before you go to bed if you are a victim of sleeplessness. Plenty of greens should be eaten if you have a sallow skin. If you are too thin, take potatoes mashed with milk. Watercress for breakfast is good as a blood purifier. If you are anaemic, eat leeks and drink the water they are boiled in.

Dark colours are best for stout people.

Nothing is more effective for ridding a cellar of black beetles than merely sprinkling the floor with ordinary salt. Leave it down for a week or so.

Before frying cold potatoes, slice them, and well dredge with flour. They will brown quicker and be improved in flavour.

If eggs you are about to boil are cracked, add a little vinegar to the water, and they can be boiled as satisfactorily as undamaged ones.

When suet is mixed with lard, they should be melted in the oven and well stirred. After that the suet will not harden.

When poison has been accidentally swallowed, no emetic is better than mustard. Mix three teaspoonful with a cupful of warm water and swallow. At once the stimulative action upon the stomach causes that organ to reject all its contents, the poisonous ingredients with all the rest.

Wash and wipe all saucepans while they are still hot from the cooking. They are easier to do then than when they get cold. Try it, and you will soon realise what a difference it makes.

When washing cut glass, add turpentine to the water in the proportion of one tablespoonful to two quarts of water. You will get a clear and brilliant polish.

Sprinkle a little flour in the fat before frying eggs, and it will keep them from splattering, and they will be a beautiful brown.

If you possess an aspidistra, don’t wash the leaves. Instead, rub very gently with a clean duster every two or three days. It is a much better plan than washing and far less messy. If the plants have been very neglected and are grimed with dust, wipe the dirt off with a sponge and warm water before you begin the dusting plan, but unless they really are very dirty the washing is quite unnecessary.

For a hard cough that nothing else seems to touch, try onion and sugar. Cut up an onion into thin slices, and sprinkle with real cane moist sugar. This ‘bleeds’ the onion in a few hours. Take a teaspoonful of this juice at least once every hour. The taste, smell, and look of it are just horrid, but it never fails to loosen a hard cough.

The common practice of beating dust out of cocoanut mats is to grasp one corner and then another, bringing the mat down with considerable violence. In consequence, the corners of the mat very soon are frayed. A better plan is to turn doormats upside down, and give them a vigorous stamping with the feet. This frees the dust much better than taking up the mats and shaking them.

A good hint for those who do their own paper hanging is to apply the paste to the wall instead of the paper. Amateurs will find it much easier to match the pattern, and the paper is less liable to tear by following this method, besides saving time and trouble.

If you boil rice in water for ten minutes before making a rice pudding, less milk is needed.

A useful cement for mending delicate china may be made by mixing rice flour with cold water, and simmering it over a fire until it becomes thick.

Glasses should be washed in cold water. Hot water sets the stain, especially of milk. Add salt to the water, dry, and polish with a quite clean cloth. A bit of velveteen makes a fine polisher for glass.

To clean and revive a leather handbag, rub with a small sponge dipped in the white of a raw egg.

To remove stains made by hot dishes and plates on a polished table, rub the white marks with a flannel dipped in a little ammonia.

If you make a Yorkshire pudding with half milk and half water, you will find it equally as nice.

To clean scratched silver put a small quantity of putty powder (which can be bought at a chemist’s) into a saucer and mix it with sufficient olive oil to form a paste. Rub on the silver with a piece of flannel, and polish with a chamois leather. The scratches will then be quite invisible.

When soaking dried green peas, use boiling water, as this brightens their colour.

One teaspoonful of ammonia to a teacupful of water will clean gold or silver jewellery; if applied to diamonds (the underside as well as the surface) it will clean them instantly, and increase manifestly their brilliance.

To clean velvet sprinkle with dry salt and brush backwards and forwards till all dust is removed.

Add a little cornflour to salt for filling salt cellars, as this prevents the salt Hardening. Only half a teaspoonful of cornflour to two tablespoonfuls of salt is needed.

Pictures hung by a single wire have an annoying way of getting uneven on account of the slipping of the wire on the picture hook. This can sometimes be avoided by first hanging the picture face to the wall and then turning it round. The single turn this makes in the wire near the hook prevents slipping.

When making almond or other icing for cakes, add a few drops of vanilla flavouring. This gives a nice flavour to the icing.

To clean a mackintosh, take a potato, cut it in half, and rub the soiled parts with the cut end. Then rub with a damp flannel and hang up to dry.

Window cleaning. Instead of using wet cloths, whiting, or paraffin, first remove the dust, then sprinkle a little liquid brass polish on a rag and rub over the glass. Let it dry, then polish with a soft dry duster. The windows will keep clean a long time, and flies will not settle on them.

Mildew on leather may be removed by rubbing the affected part with vaseline.

When making bread, always thoroughly warm the flour before mixing the yeast. Flour is naturally very cold material, and if you do this you will only need to let the bread rise for one and a half hours, and it will always be a success.

A letter which has been sealed with the white of an egg cannot be opened by the steam of boiling water as the heat only adds to its firmness.

Milk jugs and basins should always be rinsed in cold water before being washed in hot. Hot water used first sets the curd, and the surface is not so easily cleaned.

Common bracken fern laid down in places frequented by cockroaches will drive them away.

Pin a towel to your belt when you bake or cook. It saves many steps.

Before boiling a cracked egg, rub salt over the shell. This prevents the white from boiling out.

To clean pickle jars and other glass bottles which have become stained, crush up an eggshell, put it into the bottle, add a little hot (but not boiling) water and shake well. This will clean and polish the glass.

The best liniment for rheumatism is made by mixing one part of turps and two of olive oil. It is also good for neuralgia.

Cayenne pepper will rid cupboards of mice.

The odour of paint, which often causes nausea and sickness, is easily removed if a pail of water containing a handful of salt is placed in the room overnight.

Flowers will keep fresh for a longer time if a little sugar is added to the water.

To prevent salt from becoming damp and lumpy, when filling the bottles add several grains of rice; these will absorb the moisture and the salt will keep dry and fine.

To keep moths from a box or chest of drawers, sprinkle the contents with white cloves. This is better than camphor or cedar dustings.

When silver is tarnished, and has to be cleaned in a hurry, it will greatly quicken matters to boil for a minute in soda water that is not too strong. Later, polish in the usual way. Often all that is needed is to rub well with a dry cloth.

When making fruit pies, damp the edges of the pastry with milk instead of water. The juice will not then boil over, as is so frequently the case.

A leather bag can be made to look almost new again by first washing over with a little warm soapy water, then drying and brushing over with the white of an egg.

If you are troubled with mice, put camphor about wherever they are, and you will find that your trouble will be at an end, as mice dislike the smell and leave the place where they find it.

To make furniture cream, take 1oz of beeswax, 1oz of white wax, 1oz of castile soap, ¾ pint of boiling water, and ¼ pint of turpentine. Stir the waxes and castile soap in a jar, and cover with boiling water. Then stand this in another jar of boiling water until the wax is melted, then add the turpentine and allow to cool.

Often when cooking, a knife will be hurriedly used to cut an onion, when the smell will remain for a long time, unless something is done to prevent it. Draw the knife through a raw carrot once or twice. This will remove the odour.

A tablespoon of glycerine added to the water used for washing white cricketing flannels makes them soft and keeps them a good colour.

A good, though old, remedy to take the pain and soreness out of the face when a toothache has caused neuralgia pains, is to take quite a good sized yellow turnip, divide in half, and scrape into tiny shreds. Put the scraped turnip on a muslin cloth in the form of a poultice, and put on the face, tie on with another cloth. It will soon give heat and quickly take out soreness.

To keep meat fresh, pour a little vinegar on to a deep dish, place two sticks across it, and stand the joint on this. Cover with a clean piece of muslin. Flies will not go near a joint protected in this way, for they dislike the smell of vinegar.

If you make baking powder bread, you can knead into the dough any cold potatoes you have left.

Suet is always apt to stick to the knife when chopping. This can be prevented by sprinkling a little ground rice on to the suet.

To ensure a Yorkshire pudding always being light, it s a good plan to add a tablespoonful of cold water to the batter just before placing it in the oven.

A cut lemon rubbed on fishy knives and forks takes away the smell at once.

To clean old oak, mix together two ounces of boiled linseed oil, three ounces of turpentine, one ounce of vinegar, and a quarter of a pint of methylated spirit. Mix and keep in a bottle.

When meat is tough, soak for ten minutes in slightly diluted vinegar.

Vinegar and honey mixed in equal parts is a great relief for a cough.

Remember that many people get a kind of nettlerash if they eat too many strawberries, so if your skin begins to get irritable, don’t send for a doctor until you have made quite sure that it is not strawberry rash.

Leather that has become dull and shabby looking may be very much improved in appearance by being rubbed over with the white of an egg, well beaten.

When scrambling eggs for breakfast add one teaspoonful of fine breadcrumbs and one tablespoonful of milk to every beaten egg. Season with pepper and salt and cook in the usual way. By this means stale bread may be used up, and one egg will go as far as two.

To rid a cupboard of beetles, place some paraffin in an old jar and stand it in the cupboard. Also saturate pieces of rag with paraffin and lay them about the floor.

Instead of peeling potatoes for boiling, cut a narrow strip entirely round the centre of each. When they are cooked it will be found that the skins will slip off without any trouble at all.

Lacquered brass soon gets to look shabby if nothing is done to it. Once it has got really bad it is beyond hope, but if proper care is taken from the beginning lacquered brass may be kept nice looking for years. Clean it every month by rubbing with a little good furniture polish, and then with a clean dry duster till every vestige of stickiness is gone. The polish prevents the brass from corroding, as it is sure to do if left alone.

A pinch of salt in the teapot brings out the full flavour of the tea.

A few drops of lemon juice added to the water in which is boiled will make the grains white.

Cream or eggs can be beaten in half the time if a pinch of salt is added and the job done before an open window. Before boiling eggs, wet the shells thoroughly in cold water before dropping in boiling water, and they will not crack.

Allow cabbage water to cool, then pour on the ground. It is an excellent fertiliser for trees and rhubarb.

Try one day cold boiled mackerel, parsley sauce, and salad. It makes such a nice dish, and the fish tastes very much like salmon.

When jam assumes a ‘sugary’ appearance, stand it in the oven until the sugar has melted, and when cool it will be ready for use.

When blowing out a candle hold the light above you and then blow. If you do this the wick will not smoulder, and therefore the candle will be easily lighted again. The contrary will be the case if you blow downwards.

When cooking fruit, add a pinch of carbonate of soda, and less sugar will be required.

When dusting, dip the cloths in paraffin and leave for twenty four hours previous to use. Dusting is a tiresome job, but this makes it much lighter.

A little vaseline applied to the hinges of a door which creaks will stop all noise. It is far more satisfactory than oil.

When boiling eggs wet the shells thoroughly with cold water before placing in the boiling water, and they will not crack.

If flowers for decoration purposes have to be cut some time before they are wanted, the following plan is a good one for preserving their freshness. Cut the stalks on the slant, and slit them up two or three times for an inch or so, place in a slightly tepid water, and keep in a cool, dark place.

The best method of cleaning piano keys is with a rag dipped in methylated spirit.

Turpentine is one of the most useful of washing aids. It will loosen dirt without the slightest injury to fabrics.

A slice or two of orange added to tomato soup almost immediately before serving greatly improves the flavour.

Take two old pieces of velvet, about five inches by three and a half, join them like a bag, fill with cotton wool, and sew up the end. This is better than any brush for giving a brilliant polish to boots.

In house cleaning time, one of the chief cares should be the pictures. They too often are overlooked or left in the hands of servants when the mistress should give them her personal attention. Each picture, as it is taken down, should be carefully dusted and the cord or wire wiped. Then lay it on the table, wash the glass, and polish it until it is perfectly clear. Wipe the frame with a soft cloth wet in warm water and rub off all fly specks and other dirt. If the picture is framed with a glass, paste paper smoothly all over the back to keep rust from sifting through the cracks.

Before using tinware of any kind, rub it well over with fresh lard. If treated in this way it will never rust.

To remove candle grease, shake a few drops of spirits of wine on the spot and rub it with the hand until it becomes powder, when it can be easily brushed off.

To clean windows quickly moisten a rag with paraffin oil, and rub well over the glass. Leave for some minutes, then polish with a clean dry cloth.

To clean leather chairs, first wash the leather with a clean, new sponge, dipped in a quart of warm water, to which a teaspoonful of vinegar has been added. Then rub dry with a chamois leather. Next whisk the whites of two eggs and mix them with two teaspoonfuls of turpentine. Rub well into the leather with a clean flannel. Dry with another clean rag. This will freshen shabby leather up wonderfully.

If when you are baking anything the oven gets too hot, put in a basin of cold water instead of leaving the door open.

Ink stains on a wooden table may be removed either by scrubbing with strong vinegar, or else with salt and vinegar.

A convenient way to melt chocolate is to put it into a glass jar and stand it in hot water.

When cleaning a bicycle rub the enamelled parts with a little ordinary furniture polish. This will give them a lasting polish, and make them look like new.

Have a plate of charcoal in a safe or larder. It will take to itself all the bad odours, and keep things absolutely sweet.

Vinegar placed in a pot of dried up glue will moisten and make it liquid again.

To cure hiccoughs, take one teaspoonful of vinegar.

Steep clothes in cold water for twelve hours before washing. Cold water is a splendid thing for loosening stains and dirt. Soap any specially dirty parts.

If oranges are soaked in boiling water for five minutes before peeling they will be much more juicy, and the white skin will come off with the rind.

When making jam tarts, mix the jam with a little hot water before putting it into the pastry. It tastes just as well, and the jam goes further.

Dents in furniture can be mended by damping the wood with warm water, and then covering it with wet brown paper (three thicknesses), and holding a hot iron over it. The dent will gradually swell up.

On leather covered chairs, the leather often becomes greasy where the arms and head rest on it. To remove the marks try the following application: To make it, boil half a pint of linseed oil and let it stand till nearly cold, then pour in half a pint of vinegar. Stir until thoroughly mixed and bottle. To use, put a few drops on a piece of flannel or other woollen fabric, and rub the discoloured parts lightly; then polish with soft dusters. This will renovate the leather, and restore the appearance of any leather covered goods, Gladstone bags, and similar articles.

If a pinch of sugar is added when beating an egg, it can be beaten in half the time.

Dried and heated sawdust will remove grease spots from carpets or linoleum. Sprinkle the sawdust over the spot, leave for a short time, and then sweep off.

To preserve the yolks of eggs when the whites only have been used, place the yolks in a basin and just cover with cold water. Cover with a plate and stand in a cool place till required.

The best way to clean enamelled ware is to use a little ordinary salt and no soda; this will keep it in new condition.

When frying potato cakes, put a teaspoonful of vinegar into the frying lard. This prevents the cakes from being too greasy when cooked.

If wine is spilled on the tablecloth, sprinkle salt on the stain while it is still damp. If this is done the mark will come out with ordinary washing. For tea or coffee stains, pour through the stained part boiling water in which a little borax has been dissolved.

Silver which is not in constant use should be wrapped in tissue paper and closely packed in a tin box with a tight fitting lid. In this way it will keep bright for a long time.

When lighting a candle, the match should be held at the side of the wick, and not over the top. To make a candle fit into the stick, dip the end into boiling water, then push it into the socket, and it will remain firm.

A good way of stiffening the bristles of hairbrushes after washing is to dip them into a mixture of equal quantities of milk and water, and then dry before the fire.

A French beauty specialist advises the following remedy for corns. Boil the outer strong skin of an onion till tender, and apply it warm to the toe, binding it on with a linen bandage. She states that if fresh applications are put on night and morning the corn will detach itself in two or three days and will not return. This is so simple a remedy that it is within the power of any sufferer, and, being absolutely harmless, it cannot cause any discomfort, even if it should fail.

To keep a sponge in good condition it should be washed occasionally in warm water to which has been added a little tartaric acid; afterwards rinse in clear water.

Make your own smelling salts by filling a bottle with small pieces of rock ammonia, and then adding lavender water or Eau de Cologne.

To cure a bald spot on the head, if the roots of the hair are not yet gone, the following remedy will soon cause the hair to grow again; any chemist will make it up for you: Ten parts of the expressed juice of onions, ten parts crude cod liver oil, and five parts of mucilage: mix very thoroughly, and shake the bottle well before using. Apply to the scalp, and rub in very thoroughly twice a week.

When cups lose their handles or are cracked they should not be thrown away. They make excellent gelatine and custard moulds.

To remove brown stains from earthenware dishes and plates, caused by putting them in the oven, soak in strong borax and hot water.

If you are one of those unfortunate people who get stung directly you go for a country walk, you should procure some lavender oil from the chemist and sprinkle this over yourself very freely. Insects hate the smell of this and will not come near it. Take the bottle about with you, and occasionally shake a few drops over your wrists and hands. Bathe your feet and ankles with it before going out.

For burns apply carron oil, which consists of a mixture of linseed oil and limewater in equal parts. A bottle of this is a most useful household remedy.

When ironing, keep a piece of brown paper thickly sprinkled with salt on the table, and rub the iron on it occasionally. This will prevent stains from adhering to it.

Cane seated chairs that have sagged can be tightened by washing them in hot water and soap and rinsing in clear water. Let them dry in the open air.

Tarnished articles of brass when washed in the water in which potatoes have boiled will become as bright as new.

When you feel bilious squeeze a lemon into a glass filled three parts with cold water and drink it straight off. No sugar should be added.

Nothing looks so bad on a table as smeary glass. If these simple rules are followed, there is no need for it to be smeary. Always have a special cloth for drying cloth, which is used for nothing else, and dry it well each time you use it. Wash glass in salt and water, never using soap. Use hot water and salt if the glass is very dirty, and cold water and salt if the tumblers only want polishing.

To clean straw hats, wash with warm soapy water, then rinse in clean warm water; dry in the open air. Stiffen with the white of an egg, beaten to froth.


The world is not much interested in the details of your calamity, so keep them a secret between yourself and God. For your part, go to work and forget them. The world will judge you by how well you forget - and by the effect of the forgetting upon you.

Women, according to a male observer, are born match makers, and in this respect they enable the philosopher to gain a great insight into the true inwardness of the feminine nature. The desire to bring about an understanding between two people is possessed by all women from their earliest childhood. As soon as a woman has accomplished her own object by getting married, she hastens to help the sons and daughters of her friends to marry. The match making instinct, however, is strongest in women who, for one reason or another, have failed of matrimony themselves. It almost seems, therefore, as though Nature had implanted in women not only the matrimonial instinct, but also the desire to promote marriage, and thus help forward the purposes of the universe.

Never scold a child harshly for telling an untruth, because if you do the child will be afraid afterwards to acknowledge if he or she has told a lie. It is a much better plan to say, “Mother will never be angry if you have an accident of any kind and tell her the truth, but it makes her sad if you tell a lie.” Children can far more often be touched by kindness than by severity.

Even when her ideal man appears, a girl should not accept his attentions without careful consideration. Such is the doctrine of a matronly woman, who thus justified her belief: “There is great risk in a girl blindly marrying her first choice. For one reason, her mind being continually filled with the figure of her ideal, she is apt to neglect the study of other types of men, and thus she has no basis for comparison. The consequence is that her knowledge of the male sex is so limited that she can have no just estimate of the ’ideal,’ who, in comparison with other men, may be very far from deserving the distinction the girl confers upon him in her thoughts. It is quite a mistake to suppose that the first love is the best and the truest. One might almost as well say that the first piece of work of an artist or a mechanic was always his best. First efforts nearly always bear the marks of imperfection and uncertainty, and love is often the same. The girl who wishes to be happily mated should be as careful in the choice of a life partner as in any other important transaction of her life. The ‘ideal man’ should be judged as coolly and impartially as any other.”

The spider is an excellent guide to the weather. Not only is he extremely sensitive to the state of the atmosphere, but he takes a keen interest in the habits of flying insects. He knows that these do not come out in the wet. When, therefore, he is ‘resting,’ you may be certain that he is expecting rain. But should he be busy constructing a new web, it is a sign that he is looking forward to a fine spell - and he is generally right.

To be entertaining, a girl should not be pert, sarcastic, or highly “intellectual” in her conversation. Nevertheless, she need not efface her individuality. A quiet, tactful expression of her opinions, adaptability to her surroundings, and a disposition to enter with interest into the experiences of others will win her friends everywhere. To be modest without being prudish, intelligent without being self-complacent, individual without being egotistic, and cheerful without being pert - these are some of the characteristics of the girl who wins popularity and admiration.

“There is not the remotest little corner or inlet of the minute blood vessels of the human body that does not feel some little wavelet from the convulsion occasioned by good hearty laughter,” says a well known physician. “The life principle is shaken to the innermost depths, sending new tides of life and strength to the surface, thus materially tending to ensure good health to the person who indulges therein. The blood moves more rapidly, and conveys a different impression to all the organs of the body as it visits them on that particular mystic journey, when the person is laughing, from what it does at other times. For this reason, every good hearty laugh in which a person indulges has a tendency to lighten his life, conveying, as it does, a new and distinct stimulus to the vital forces.”

The first secret of beauty that all French women are taught is to learn how to smile prettily and display their teeth. For what is more beautifying than a smile? It lights up the whole face, draws attention to bright eyes, rosy lips, and good teeth alike. Women who would be attractive must learn to smile, not to grin or smirk foolishly, but to display genuine pleasure and admiration, and a ready appreciation of other people’s efforts to please them.

The spirit of the present age is very often quite false to the original conception of marriage, where a wife was required to be the true helpmate of her husband, and she helped him to build up the home bit by bit. Now the man, having made his pile, very often sets out to choose a wife as the final ornamentation of his home. The modern maiden waits for her lover to return, and claim her with both hands filled with gold. She does not fare forth into the world with him. And what is the result? Lovely, charming girls that he knew in his youth, but for whom he or his prospects were not considered good enough then, are now faded and discontented women, from among whom he, in his turn, is certainly not going to chose the one to grace his wealth. Parents often demand so many material advantages for their daughters that they are apt to forget they are women of flesh and blood, with human longings, and a wealth of possibilities, which it is their duty to see realised.

It is a woman’s own fault if with advancing years she allows herself to be neglected and pushed aside by youthful and inexperienced members of her sex. If she has occupied her time well, and kept herself abreast with the age, she will be sought after, and her voice listened to with attention, in all active and advanced circles. There is no law relegating a woman to the background when she is no longer youthful. On the contrary, a woman may become more attractive as the years go on, even the plainest acquiring beauty as the result of pure life and aspiring character. The presence of such women is a blessing to all about them, and the attainment of the proud positions they occupy is within the reach of all women - beautiful or homely - who set themselves to grow in mind and spirit.

The practice of licking gummed envelope flaps is very injurious to the health, and yet there are thousands of people who lick these and postage stamps. It will surprise you no doubt to learn that the gum used on postage stamps and envelopes is obtained from any old refuse, such as bones and hooves of dead animals, which may have been, in all probability, diseased. These essential articles of business life are manufactured from all manner of rags, and, after being fashioned anew, are handled by many conditions of people. Fortunately, the practice of stamp licking has proved fatal in few instances, but that does not necessarily minimise the danger. Thorough as the sterilising process is the manufacture of these articles, there is no doubt that many germs are not exterminated. A good plan is to moisten the finger, and rub this along the gummed portion. Children especially seem to be liable to the sucking of pencils, pens, etc. This should be as much discouraged as the licking of gum.

Girls who have lovers should not expect too much of them. The financial side of courtship is a delicate but important one. A girl who really cares for her lover will not expect him to lavish gifts upon her, especially if he has but a slender income. Some young men are very sensitive in such matters, and would spend their last halfpenny rather than seem stingy. Indeed, the girl should adopt means to save her lover any needless expenditure, for if he is bent on a reasonable early marriage he will probably have to practise thrift.

When you are out walking never look at your feet, but keep your head well erect in the air. A most uncomely as well as slovenly habit is that of shuffling. If you are liable to indulge in this practice, endeavour to always lift your feet well off the ground, and you will soon fall into the way of walking naturally and correctly. Many a woman is inclined to bend her back at the waist with the idea that this gives her a more erect carriage, but if the truth be known such an appearance is as unbecoming as would be the effect of rounded shoulders.

If women only knew the benefit derived from a daily walk, many an ache and a pain would vanish; and these walks need not be of long duration. Half an hour’s daily walking is quite sufficient to begin with. The proper time to walk is when the system is not depressed by fasting or fatigue. Delicate women will do best to walk three hours after breakfast, while invalids must be careful to indulge only in moderate exercise, also to avoid fatigue and never to stand about in the open air.

It is quite a wise axiom to remember that as you grow older it is well to broaden your outlook and live for others more and more. Be on the look out to render little services - even if at times distasteful or difficult. Even a disagreeable service gives one something to think about besides oneself. Cultivate, too, a bright, cheerful manner. Be specially careful to guard your thoughts as well as words when ructions are inclined to happen. It isn’t much good (though better than nothing) to keep the cutting words back if the hard thoughts are given free play. Letting one’s thoughts dwell on unkindnesses or slights or grievances is a short cut to growing old.

Never talk about yourself, and if you find the conversation drifting that way, get it out of a personal rut at once. Do not lead willingly into the subjects of politics or religion unless you know the creed and the party of your partner. Never make gestures in society. Never point, and never let your eye wander over the room while your friend is talking to you.

What a girl should learn. To sew; cook; mend; be gentle; value time; dress neatly; keep a secret; be self reliant; respect old age; avoid idleness; darn stockings; keep a home tidy; take care of a baby; make home happy; be above gossiping; control her temper; take care of the sick; sweep down cobwebs; humour a cross old man; marry a man for his worth; read the very best of books; take plenty of active exercise; be light hearted and fleet footed; wear shoes that won’t cramp her feet; be a womanly woman in all circumstances; be a helpmate to a husband, should she get one!

The advice for women workers is to not make the mistake of swallowing a scratch meal, then tumbling into bed immediately you return from work. Food taken when you are tired out is apt to cause indigestion. Instead, go to your room, slip off your corsets and boots, put on a warm dressing gown, and lie down quite flat on the floor (out of the draught, of course.) Don’t raise the head at all. Let all your muscles relax, and lie quite still, with your eyes shut, for from five to ten minutes. Remember it won’t do you nearly so much good to lie on a bed or sofa. Then minutes spent in this way will do wonders, then you can take a light and nourishing meal with the best results. Don’t atempt a solid meat meal when you are tired. If you come home with a headache, let down your hair, and masage your head gently, but quite firmly. Dab a little vinegar behind your ears; you will find it very refreshing.

If you are a catch-coldy person, fortify yourself by taking some form of cod liver oil when autumn sets in, before it is really cold, and continue it all through the chilly weather. This simply does wonders. Also eat plenty of butter, suet, bacon, and other fatty foods, all of which are valuable foods for the body and help to sustain its warmth.

It would be well, for those who can manage it, to get into the practice of taking a rest at noon. They should lie down, if only for ten minutes, or five minutes. If lying down is impossible, lean back in a chair and close your eyes. Just forget everything. Rest; relax. Even if you do not sleep, rest. The practice will make you live longer. It will make you healthier. It will probably make people want you to live longer, for it will take the irritability out of your temper, the wrinkles out of your face. It will make your eyes brighter, your face fuller. It is indeed well worth trying.

Sometimes a friendship between a man and woman ends with little harm to either; sometimes in love and happiness to both. But the risk is a great one. More often the result is misery for the one or the other. In the majority of cases it is the woman who suffers. Women are warmly affectionate and easily influenced by men with whom they come in contact. They find it hard to realise that a man who in the first place is content with friendship seldom wants more. Leave platonic friendship alone. At best it is a risky game at which two play and one must always lose.

Many a woman who, from one cause or another, has her husband on her hands, knows what an objectionable creature he is if he has nothing to occupy him. Anything is better than to have a man mooning about with his hands in his pockets, and a pipe in his mouth, getting in the way, growling at the domestic arrangements, or snapping at the children. Therefore, encourage your husband to have a hobby. If if can be carpentry, so much the better. You can find him plenty of employment, and keep him at it while he is at home. Even photography is to be encouraged. It may mean the use of one of your cupboards as a dark room, much slopping of water, and stains on clothes and handkerchiefs from chemicals. But it is a hobby, and should be cheerfully tolerated, for it will keep the man contented and happy.

Matrimony has been described as a cage. Those who are in wish to get out, those who are out wish to get in. The first is rather a sweeping assertion, in view of the countless happy, one might almost say perfect, marriages which do exist; but it must be admitted there is a good deal of truth in the second statement. And it is quite right that it should be so. Marriage is, or ought to be, the natural goal at which every man worth his salt, and every maiden deserving of her womanhood, aims. How often, however, is their ambition realised in a reasonable time? The road to marriage, which should be easy and inviting, and, like the king’s highway, free to all, is beset with numberless difficulties. At the first sign that a young man and girl are attracted to each other, friends and acquaintances all seem to consider themselves at liberty to play a part in the affair. Jokes are freely made at the lovers’ expense, and sometimes they are laughed out of their attachment. Then the family on each side readily expresses the opinion that the chosen one is by no means an appropriate partner. Instead of helping on a promising match everyone does their best to hinder. Very often they succeed.

The next time you use a lemon for the juice only, grate the rind before squeezing, and mix with a little castor sugar. It makes a delicious flavouring for cakes.

Lighten other peoples’ burdens by being bright and cheery. Make yourself agreeable and pleasant to all with whom you come in contact. Make the best of your life by not living solely for yourself. See that others get the benefit of your knowledge and kindness. Be contented and happy by being diligent to your duty. Bring joy and happiness into the life of others by cheering everybody up. Raise the standard of high thinking and high living among your friends by setting them a noble example.

There is nothing so discouraging to the peace of a pretty woman as the discovery of the first wrinkle in her fair face. The fading tints of a well kept and smooth skin may be concealed by artifices, but a wrinkle is an obstinate, aggressive witness that leaves evidence of age in unpicturesque language most convincing.

Do not talk about the weather, your illnesses, or the maladies of your friends; society is a place for the interchange of only bright and pleasant thoughts.

Where there is estrangement after marriage, it is generally due to a neglect of matters apparently trivial in themselves, but making in the aggregate an important obstacle to a good understanding. All the little doubts and differences should be frankly discussed, and not veiled in a sulky silence or mask of indifference. If your husband forgets some of the little attentions he paid you before marriage, tell him of it quietly. Try to understand his point of view, and let him realise yours. Trifles become important when they may lead to sundered lives. When a man understands how largely little things affect a woman’s life, it is bound to influence him.

Easily discouraged men have a strong craving for a wife’s sympathy, but the wise wife will rarely yield to it. She will never sympathise with his weakness, for such an attitude often causes a faint hearted man to lose energy, ambition, at even the sense of shame at being a failure. Of course, it is not an easy task to alter a husband’s character and instil into him those qualities of strength which he does not possess, but a wife who acts carefully and tactfully may do wonders in this respect. Let her treat him as though his courage and ability were undoubted, and he will speedily respond to the treatment. He will try to deserve her good opinion, and live up to the qualities with which she credits him.

It is a great mistake to neglect any sign of squinting. Sometimes it is a symptom of brain trouble in a child. The earlier it is treated the better the chance of permanent cure. It can often be cured by the wearing, for a time, of spectacles.

“The self assertive woman who commences married life with the idea that she is to be autocrat of her new home, and dictate the domestic policy, without reference to her husband’s opinions, will in many cases wreck the happiness of that home.” Such was the assertion of an experienced matron, who added that although such a woman might derive a certain amount of satisfaction from the feeling that she could domineer over her husband, it was a poor satisfaction at best. Every woman, sooner or later, feels that to be truly happy a wife should be able to be proud of her husband. And what wife can be proud of a man who suffers himself to be “henpecked”?

The art of being beautiful is the art of keeping young. Have you found what a pleasure it was to have plenty of rain water? When you have once used this you will use no other. Again, try a 30 minutes flat on the back rest every day - feet slightly raised - in a cool, quiet room. No reading - let everything slide. There’s nothing like it for rejuvenation. It acts like magic. A drink of hot water regularly half an hour before breakfast and last thing at night. Take special care of your teeth - seeing your dentist, if possible, once every three months or so, to make sure there’s nothing wrong, rather than wait until something undoubtedly is wrong before going. And following these little tips will help you to keep young.

A clever woman gives the following hints to wives as aids to matrimonial happiness; “Don’t try to argue or bully your husband out of his faults. That method is quite useless, whether as regards husbands or anybody else. If he is a fussy, interfering sort of man, let him interfere and fuss to his heart’s content. Encourage him in it, but point out to him that he is so manly and practical that that the trifles he fusses about are beneath his notice. If he is untidy and disorderly, keep clearing up after him without letting him observe it. Then take to praising him for his orderly and methodical habits. This will cause him to try to live up to the character you give him. He will become tidy rather than disgrace the reputation you give him. Similarly, if he is mean and selfish make him think you believe him to be the most generous of men, and you will have banished half his meanness before he knows it. Rightly handled, men are very tractable creatures as a rule, and will live up to an ideal if it is placed before them without their knowing it.”

The old tradition, that to eat anything just before going to bed, is sure to produce indigestion, and render sleep impossible, is now happily exploded. It is not good, as a matter of fact, to go to bed with the stomach so leaded that the undigested food will render one restless, but something of a light, palatable nature in the stomach is one of the best aids to quietude and rest. Nothing is more agreeable on retiring for the night than to take a bowl of hot broth, like oatmeal gruel or light soup. It is a positive aid to nervous people.

If you are unhappy, look carefully for the cause. More often than not, if you are honest, you will have to confess that the real source of your misery lies in yourself. Half the unhappy women one meets today are merely the victims of their own morbid introspection and self absorption. The remedy is to find something to do that will take you out of yourself, for unhappiness is generally the child of idleness. Once you are too busy to brood over your troubles they will soon disappear. On the other hand, if you sit and think of them, they have a way of assuming such proportions that they tinge your life with gentle melancholy and cast a cloud over all you do.

Many mothers who cannot nurse their babies would be able to do so if they were not overworked, and if they took half an hour’s rest after each meal, and had a good hour‘s sound sleep in the afternoon.

“God made you, but you marry yourself,” wrote a witty author who had no belief in love’s young theory that marriages are made in Heaven. This is a point well worth remembering and taking to heart, for you will find that much of life’s success depends upon a happy marriage. Still, there are many amongst us who believe that falling in love is one of the matters over which we have little or no control, the part of life that fate predestines for us, the one time when we lose control of ourselves and are exalted to something above this humdrum existence, to a state of beatitude that the gods might envy. So much for high romance. But beautiful and ideal as this theory sounds, such a state of bliss cannot last for ever. There comes a time when it must sink to lower levels, when the lovers have to descend from their dream-castles in the clouds to prosaic earth, and all its everyday practicalities. It is then that you find the test of affection really comes.

A proper amount of bodily rest is absolutely necessary for people who are too thin. They must go to bed early, and they must not take much strenuous exercise. They must, as far as possible, avoid over fatigue. If they can manage to have nine hours in bed, so much the better; and the more of those nine hours that are spent in sleep the better, too.

Should a wife share her husband’s secrets? Should she participate in a knowledge of his income, of his business affairs, of what he does with and how he spends his time; should all his companions, his amusements and diversions be made known to her - in short, should all his life, after marriage, be laid before her like an open book? The two objections so often raised - “that it is not fair to trouble her with them, and that she has no need for such matters - are the creation of men alone. In the first place, the average wife is not only willing, but glad to share her husband’s worries. Who so consoling, who so inspiring, as the ever sympathetic woman? She has the power to smooth away the wrinkles from the weary man’s brow, to dispel the gloom which misfortune and disaster bring. Success, too, shows her in a favourable light. She is the urger towards high goals, the impelling force that makes a man respond, to every call within him.

Out of all turmoil and suffering something is always born - something worth having, and the more expensive the experience the more precious the result.

To most effective position to sleep, for obtaining intellectual rest, according to an eminent physician, is to keep the head low and the feet slightly elevated. Failing all this, the body should, at any rate, be horizontal, so as to irrigate the brain well. The habit of sleeping with the head low and the feet high is also said to be a remedy for brain troubles and certain internal maladies. It can be adopted gradually.

There is one thing, and one thing only, to do when a man’s love is dead, and that is to let him go. To “win back his love” is next to an impossibility. It is a pathetic sight to see two people, one madly in love with the other, and the other unable to reciprocate. And yet, “try to forget” is the only advice that can be offered. The silliest thing a woman can do is to cling to the man who wants to have done with her, and to try to bring him round to reciprocate her affection. If he is a sentimentalist he may be influenced, and vow that he really does love her, just to please her. But this will not alter his affections. He will shirk the marriage and put it off. Should he go as far as the altar, she is no better off, for doubtless after marriage he will state plainly that he doesn’t care for her, and that he only married her because she worried him into it. It is not wise to surmise that a man’s love is dead. The girl should make quite sure of it before acting accordingly. Bring him to the point of saying so. It will pay the ill treated maid to do this, much as she may regret the parting, for a man in love can be gentleness itself, while he who loves not can be cruel as the grave.

When to shake hands is a subject which depends on circumstances, yet a few general rules may be given. When a man is introduced to a lady, she does not shake hands with him unless he is decidedly elderly or distinguished. If he is the husband or brother of the lady making the introduction, it is natural to receive him cordially by shaking hands; but it is not usual to do so if he is a mere acquaintance. A hostess should shake hands with every guest who comes to her house, both on their arrival and departure. Women do not shake hands when introduced to each other, but merely bow. When, however, a young girl is presented by a friend to a married woman, the latter generally shakes hands with her, but the girl should not make the first advance. Men shake hands when introduced to each other as an expression of goodwill. When leaving an entertainment a man shakes hands with the hostess, and he may do so with any friends who are near, but he should not, of course, go about shaking hands generally.

“I wish,” said a popular authoress, “I could impress upon girls everywhere the dangers of marrying men who have not lived irreproachable lives. Many girls - especially the romantic variety - are attracted to the type of man who has had a chequered past, but who tells them that they, and they alone, can accomplish his reformation. When a man of this kind says to a quixotic young woman, ‘My only hope of leading a better life rests with you; you are the mistress of my destiny,’ the girl is at once inspired with the idea that she has a mission in life. All her womanhood is aroused, and she determines to uplift the man who thus appeals to her. Alas! A reformation is seldom effected in this way. In most cases the girl is a sweetheart, has a brief period of hope and happiness, followed by a wifehood of sorrow and disillusion.”

The new fashion of carrying one or two ostrich feathers is much in evidence, and looks very graceful. The feathers are mostly white, but now and again one sees either a blue one or one of scarlet. When dancing the most graceful effect is produced if the fan is held in the left hand pointing across the back of the holder’s neck. To lie neatly and make a graceful line, the hand wants to be fairly high, so that the direction is, if anything, downwards, and far back, in which case the point does not stand out.

Why is it that married couples who really feel for each other a deep, true, unquenchable affection often give the impression of mutual “ennui” and indifference? Simply because their familiarity, not combined with those restraining touches of conventional courtesy, has bred a certain spurious kind of contempt. A wife who neglects to thank her husband just as she would thank a social acquaintance for some small service rendered, or who interrupts without ceremony when he is in the middle of a sentence just because she wants to give a word of reminder to the servant, is sowing seeds which will bring forth a very unbeautiful crop of marital bad manners.

There is nothing that helps to brighten the family circle and make it attractive like one cheerful member, who refuses to be downhearted when things go wrong, and who is always ready to join in fun and amusement. Cultivate cheerfulness; you will find it brings popularity with it, and it is a quality that makes the world go round to a merry tune. After all, it is quite as much a habit as discontent and acrimony.

Sheets grow thin in the middle. Let us return to the economical practices of our grandmothers and tear them in two and turn them before they quite wear out. Stitch, with a very long stitch, narrow hems on the raw edges, overlap very slightly the selvedge edges and stitch together. Do not “over and over” them as our grandmothers did; time is too precious nowadays. If the middle of a sheet is very thin, or worn through, take it out and make a narrow sheet of a wide one. If the narrowest ones wear, make two pillow cases out of the four corners.

Many healthy Englishwomen would as soon think of going without their breakfast as their morning tub, and there is no doubt that the cold bath in the morning acts as a tonic upon the skin, imparting to the body an increased power of resistance against chills and colds. It must, however, be remembered that cold baths tend to use up superfluous energy, so that an invalid or aged person will not be wise to have them. Likewise, too, it must be recognised that the cold tub is a tonic, not a cleansing medium, hence it will be necessary to take a warm bath at intervals. When the construction and functions of the skin are understood it is easy to see how necessary the warm bath is for those who wish to be both healthy and beautiful.

People who suffer from depression and nerves should have plenty of colour about the house. The best colour on the walls for nerves is what is known as bathstone, a light oatmeal colour, just about the colour of rolled oats. But this is a depressing colour unless you have some very bright colours to show up against it. Nothing makes a room look more cosy than splashes of bright colour. This can be got by bright coloured vases. Save brown honey jars, or if you have any of the old cream jars of pre war days use these. Buy little half pound pots of bright coloured enamel paint in deep blue and cherry red, and always, if you can, have flowers.

All useless pieces of bric-a-brac should be eliminated from the house, and only the useful and beautiful left. One or two tasteful vases for holding cut flowers, and a few pieces of old china, providing they are perfect, are better than a mass of miscellaneous things, no matter how rare or old they may be. So one or two simple prints, carefully selected to suit the scheme of a room, and tastefully hung, are far and away more effective than a wall covered with expensive paintings out of harmony with the rest of the fittings.

Many people envy the home life of their friends because it seems to be much more happy than their own. Have you ever tried to learn the cause of this? Look at the inside life of those whose homes are really happy, and what do you find? The first thing that will strike you is that there is a spirit of give and take which makes for true happiness. Everyone seems bent on considering everyone else. There is no such thing as self interest. All seem to work for the common good. There are no taunts or jeers, no bitter retorts, no needless fault finding. There is a spirit of restfulness which pervades the whole home. This is because there is true harmony. And true harmony, after all, comes from a keen desire on the part of everyone to do the best she or he can for her or his own kindred.

When one has no distinct choice in perfume, she might select one with reference to its mystical - or medicinal - qualities. Patchouli is said to impart vivacity and daring, consequently might be recommended to timid maidens. Thyme claims kindred properties, and jasmine banishes glom. Lavender is quieting, and might be adopted by the woman who would cultivate repose of mind and manner. Heliotrope is to be recommended to the over meek young person who fears that her sweetness may be cloying, since its function is to instil a spice of obstinacy. Sassafras, rosemary, cedar, and sandalwood all have tonic properties of value, or so the ancients claimed.

Mothers should instil into their girls that to succeed in life they need to make themselves popular in society. It is pretty certain that those who are not popular never will be. When young girls are concerned, popularity cannot be acquired at will. Popularity can no more be guaranteed than success can, and, again, it is a difficult matter to say what constitutes popularity - in a young girl at any rate. A girl my be pretty, fairly agreeable, and even accomplished, and yet may fail to attract others, while another girl, with nothing like so many qualifications, is a favourite with everyone. There are several little things that militate against popularity. A girl who thinks more of herself than of others has a poor chance of popularity. A happy, generous minded girl, who takes an interest in others, makes those around her feel a sympathetic pleasure in her happiness, and she soon becomes popular and long remains so. A girl who thinks too much of herself only hears half of what is said to her. She is too self absorbed to take interest in others, and so never becomes popular, and, added to this, is the envy she naturally feels in regard to her more fortunate sister.

Don’t try to make small children sit still when they want to race and romp about. Remember that healthy growth and proper development depend on exercise. It is natural for a child to be always “on the go,” and if we thwart Nature by compelling children to be unnatural she will surely have her revenge on the children sooner or later.

Hurry and half-masticated food are the direct cause of much ill health. Try to get just ten minutes, or even less, rest after your big meal. Put your feet up on a chair or couch, or what is far better, lie right down on the floor, flat on your back, no pillow, and teach yourself to relax every tired muscle and make your mind a blank. No talking, no reading, no thinking. You will find this hard at first, but you can teach yourself, and once you have learnt and practised it you will feel after it like a new creature. In this way you store up energy for the afternoon’s work, and mind and body lose the wound-up, overstrung feeling that has arisen from the morning’s labours.

The business of being brave seems at times a difficult one. But that is exactly when it is necessary to be brave.

“Judge a woman by the rings she wears,” says a well known novelist-lecturer. “Does she wear tall settings on a podgy little finger, making it look podgier than ever? She is inartistic. Does she wear white pearls and crystal clear diamonds on a hand that is not as white as milk? She is worse than inartistic. Does she wear opals? She is venturesome. Who but a daring woman would defy superstition? Is she particularly attached to deep, red stones - rubies, carbuncles, garnets? She is of a forcible nature. Red is the colour beloved of people of passionate dispositions. Is she fond of sapphires? She is earnest, truthful, constant, intellectual. Is she very fond of quaint silver settings or old fashioned chased gold ones for her rings? There is hope for her in an artistic sense. Is she fond of the ordinary settings? She is commonplace. Does she wear but one ring, eschewing all others? She is sentimental. Does she wear a great many? She is vulgar, or, at the best, frivolous. Does she wear none at all? She is poor.”

Brain workers need a greater variety of diet than other people. People of a low order of civilisation will all be content with uncooked or such badly prepared, coarse, monotonous fare as would be intolerable to those of advanced mental powers. Housewives should therefore feel proud when their charges are particular about their daily fare, even though their discriminations and fancies are sometimes inconvenient.

A “mystery table” is always popular at a children’s party. Procure a large, shallow box, fill it with sawdust, cover it with crepe paper, and place it upon a table. Thickly plant the box with artificial or paper roses. Fasten to the end of each wire stem a prize done up nicely in white or fancy paper. Let each child choose its own buttonhole, and pull it from its bed. The same idea might be used to give each little guest a souvenir of the party.

Women are sadly at fault when they expect their lovers to be constantly expressing their devotion. It is a mistake, because a man’s reticence on the subject of his affection is really due, not to insensibility, but to the fact that he is actually more sentimental than women. He is apt to reason that when once he has told a woman he loves her she will accept the statement, and he resents being expected to repeat it constantly. It is offensive to his sense of delicacy that he should be obliged to translate his love into what he feels to be crude and inadequate words. As a consequence, many a man in love will say or write anything rather than the words a woman most desires to hear - “I love you.”

Live each day to the fullest - but keep yourself in condition to do it again tomorrow.

The signs of nervous exhaustion vary so much that it is difficult to indicate them precisely. As a rule, however, a person may safely take warning when sleep fails to refresh. The hours of sleep we need may differ, but we all want the recuperation that sleep brings. If one is irritable without adequate cause, full of groundless forebodings, and generally ill at ease, it is a bad sign. The nerve forces are not equal to their task, either in brain or heart or stomach, or all three; exhaustion is at hand.

For thin people to gain flesh, live largely on boiled meats, bread and butter, starchy vegetables, and cereals. Eggs are wonderfully good. Take one every morning before breakfast, raw, adding a suggestion of lemon juice and salt and pepper to make them palatable.

Mothers who are inclined to coddle their babies should pay a visit to any modern maternity home and see for themselves what is the common sense way of rearing a baby. No rooms over 60 degrees. Open windows all the time. No deviation from the rules laid down for infant feeding, viz. six three hourly feeds during the daytime and nothing between the one at 10p.m. and the one next morning at seven. No promiscuous “nursing.” No “picking up” in the night.

A hot bath, followed by a glass of hot milk, when one is in bed, tends generally o promote sleep. Often a biscuit, a slice of cake, and a drink of anything hot, if partaken of when one is wakeful, are sufficient to induce sleep; also the application of a cold compress to the head. Some people find it helpful to repeat hymns and poems, others slowly count from one upwards till they lose consciousness, and yet a third class of sufferers visualise a flock of sheep passing through a gate and enumerate them singly, and all these simple devices are, as a rule, successful unless there is some serious cause for the malady.

Home is the true wife’s kingdom. Very largely does she hold in her hands, as a sacred trust, the happiness and the highest good of the hearts that nestle there. The best husband cannot make his home happy if his wife be not, in every reasonable sense, a helpmate to him. Home happiness depends on the wife. Her spirit gives the home its atmosphere. Her hands fashion its beauty. Her heart makes its love. And the end is so worthy that no woman who had been called to be a wife, and has listened to the call, should consider any price too great to pay to be the light, the joy, the blessing, and the inspiration of a home. The woman who makes a sweet, beautiful home, filling it with love and prayer and purity, is doing something better than anything else her hands could do.

Do not encourage children to do things that require careful looking at - such as stringing small beads, doing needlework, looking at picture books with very small pictures, and learning to read from print while very young. All these things cause a certain strain on the sight, and may lead to short sight.

An agreeable method of changing the atmosphere in an invalid’s room is to put some eau-de-Cologne into a shallow fish, and set fire to it. The spirit will make a pretty flame and impart a delightful odour to the air.

Very stout people should not try to get thinner by taking an immoderate amount of exercise. Sometimes when people are very stout their hearts are weak, and much exercise might do mischief. If the exercise makes you pant for breath, you may know you are taking too much of it, and should slacken speed. A stout person should not go in for running or for strenuous athletic games without first being examined by a doctor.

Vinegar in washing up water removes grease, brightens china, and is a god disinfectant.

Blue veils are being worn by one or two ladies boasting perfect complexions. Only those thus favoured can stand such a test.

If eggs you are about to boil are cracked, add a little vinegar to the water, and they can be boiled as satisfactorily as undamaged ones.

Add a pinch of salt to apples to make them tender. They will cook in less time and will taste better.

When boiling rice, add a little lemon juice to the water. This makes the rice white and grainy when cooked.

After cleaning silver and plate, give a final rub with a piece of crumpled tissue paper. This makes the polish very bright and it will last longer.


LENTIL PIE. Boil two cupfuls of lentils with one onion till tender, strain off, and add two peeled sliced tomatoes. Put all into a greased pie dish, cover top with breadcrumbs and a little butter, or nut butter, and bake in an oven for half an hour.

APPLE SAUCE CAKE. Rub together a quarter of a cupful of lard and butter and of castor sugar. Add two cupfuls of flour, one each of stoned raisins and dried currants, add spice to taste. Mix a teaspoonful of baking soda with two cupfuls of cold apple sauce. When frothy, add to the other ingredients. Stir well and pour into a cake tin, standing this in a larger one three parts filed with boiling water. Bake at once.

FOR BOILED PUDDINGS. When making boiled puddings, use dripping instead of suet. It will make a lighter pudding, and is far more economical. The dripping must be rubbed into the flour. Three ounces of dripping is sufficient for nearly half a pound of flour.

JERSEY PUDDING. Mix 1oz flour thoroughly with 2oz ground rice, 2oz moist sugar, and a pinch of salt. Work these ingredients smoothly into 4oz butter. Add 2oz stoned raisins, chopped small, 1 teaspoonful finely minced lemon rind, 3 well beaten eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of milk. Pour the mixture into a well buttered mould, cover it with an oiled paper, tie it in a cloth, and keep it boiling for an hour, until it is done enough. Pour round the pudding a sauce made of syrup, flavoured with lemon rind and juice.

ORANGE FRITTERS. Peel two oranges and slice in thin pieces. Dip in a batter made from one cupful of flour, a rounding teaspoonful of butter, a tablespoonful of sugar, a pinch of salt, the yoke of one egg, and half a cupful of milk. Fry in hot fat and serve with powdered sugar or the following sauce: Beat the yolks of two eggs with half a cupful of sugar. Add the grated rind and juice of half a lemon, two tablespoonfuls of sherry or two teaspoonfuls of vanilla, and cook over hot water. Stir vigorously until it thickens, and cover with the whites of eggs beaten stiff. Serve at once.

AFTERNOON TEACAKES. Take ½lb of self raising flour and rub in 3oz of butter, add one dessertspoonful or tablespoonful of sugar, mix with milk till a little softer than for pastry, roll out and cut into rounds with a cutter or tumbler, put on a floured tin, and bake in a fairly hot oven for 15 or 20 minutes. Split open, butter liberally, and send hot to table.

BACON SAUSAGES. Take 4 tablespoonfuls of boiled rice, 4 tablespoonfuls of mashed potato, 3oz of boiled bacon, 1 teaspoonful of minced onion, 1 teaspoonful chopped parsley, half a dried egg, 1 teaspoonful flour, salt. Mince the bacon, mix with rice, potato, onion and parsley. Season. Bind with beaten egg, form into small sausages, roll in seasoned flour, and bake on a greased tin till brown. Serve with gravy and chopped cabbage.

BARLEY OMELETTES. Break two eggs into a basin, remove the specks, and beat well (if at hand, throw in a spoonful of minced parsley), a dust of pepper and salt if for savoury one; if a sweet one, add sugar. Stir into the beaten eggs enough boiled barley to make it the thickness of a rich batter, then form it into thin cakes with floured fingers. Lay them into a pan of heated fat; turn or hold before a bright fire. Minced onions or shallots may be added if approved. The omelette should be lifted with a spoon or a knife to prevent it sticking to the pan, which it will do if it is a well used pan. Jam or stewed fruit may be used with this omelette.

SYRUP SPONGE PUDDING. Half a pound of flour, 4oz of suet, half a teaspoonful of ground ginger, half a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, one teacupful of golden syrup, one teacupful of milk, a tablespoonful of sugar. Mix all the ingredients well together. Put in greased mould. Steam for two hours.

CHEESE RISOTTO. Fry an onion in a stewpan with a little dripping till the slices are a good brown colour. Then add a quart of stock and boil it up, strain it, and return to the stewpan. Then add 14oz of rice, previously washed, and boil for 20 minutes stirring frequently. Add grated cheese (about 2oz) and two tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce. A small piece of butter should be added, and the mixture put on a hot dish sprinkled with grated cheese and served very hot.

TRINITY PUDDING. This is a capital way of using up stale bread and bits of cheese. Break up half a pound of stale bread, with the very brown edges cut away, soak overnight for several hours in cold water. Have half a pint of tapioca soaked all night in a quart of cold water. Squeeze the bread dry, then mix it with the tapioca without draining the latter; then work in 8oz of flour, a teaspoonful of baking powder, and 6oz of grated cheese; add salt, pepper, a little made mustard, and 2oz of warmed fat. Turn the mixture into a greased basin, cover it with greased paper, and steam.

RICE SOUP. A nourishing soup may be made from 4oz of rice, two quarts of white stock, salt, pepper, and pounded mace to taste. Put the rice into boiling water, and let it remain there for five minutes, then pour it onto a sieve, and allow it to drain. Boil the stock and add the seasoning and rice, and allow the whole to stew until tender.

MOCK FISH. Put half a pint of milk into a saucepan with a dessertspoonful of grated onion and a pinch of mace. When the milk boils, stir in sufficient ground rice to make a stiff paste; cook for a few minutes, and season well with pepper and salt. Spread the mixture on a plate to cool. When cold cut into pieces to look like fillets of fish. Dip each in egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat.

DAINTY MUFFINS. Half a pound of flour, half a pint of milk, half a teaspoonful of baking powder, 1oz of lard or butter, one teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar. Mix all the dry ingredients together, rub in the butter, add milk to make a light dough. Roll out very lightly about half an inch thick, cut out with a small round cutter. Bake at once in a very hot oven or on a griddle. Split the muffins open, butter, and serve hot.

DURHAM CUTLETS. Cut up or mince half a pound of cold beef and ham, add 2oz of breadcrumbs, pepper and salt, bind with egg and a little milk. Form the mixture into cutlets, brush over with egg, roll in breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat. Drain on paper, and serve on a hot dish.

BREAD TARTLETS. When any pastry is left over from tarts, etc., these are very nice to make. Line tartlet tins with pastry. Bring a cupful of milk to boiling point, stir in two tablespoonfuls of margarine and pour it over enough fine breadcrumbs to make a fairly stiff paste. Add three tablespoonfuls of sugar, three tablespoonfuls of currants, and a very well beaten egg; also add eight drops of lemon essence. Put a heaped teaspoonful of this mixture into each of the tartlet tins and bake in a sharp oven till golden brown.

SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES. Wash and parboil two sweetbreads, throw them into cold water, remove outside skin and all membrane. Then chop small and measure; there should be half a pint. Put a gill of cream into a saucepan; rub together a level teaspoonful of butter and a heaped teaspoonful of flour and stir into the hot cream to a smooth paste. Add the yoke of an egg and the sweetbread, mix, and cook for a moment, then, if desired, add a dozen mushrooms, chopped fine, a teaspoonful of sat, a saltspoonful of pepper, a tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley, and ten drops of onion juice. Mix and turn onto a dish. When cool, form into croquettes, dip into beaten egg, then fine breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat.

SALLY LUNNS. A pint of flour, one egg, one teacupful of milk, a pinch of salt, two tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar, a piece of margarine the size of a small egg, half a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, one teaspoonful cream of tartar. Put soda and cream of tartar into the milk. Mix all the dry ingredients together, rubbing the butter in thoroughly. Add milk and eggs, mixing carefully. Bake in shallow tins in a moderate oven for twenty minutes.

CHEESE BLANCMANGE. Take one ounce of cornflower, and mix with a tablespoonful of milk. When quite smooth add sufficient milk to make half a pint. Add one ounce of grated cheese, a small piece of margarine, a little nutmeg, salt, and pepper, and cook for ten minutes over a slow fire. Pour into a wetted mould, and stand in a cool place to set. This is very nice eaten with salad.

JAM AND FRUIT PUDDING. Two teacupfuls of breadcrumbs, one teacupful each of flour and suet, half a teacupful of milk, one ounce of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of raspberry jam, one ounce of currants, half a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. Mix all well together and boil for three hours.

RICE AND EGGS. Grease a pie dish and cover the bottom with a layer of boiled rice. Lay slices of hard boiled egg on the top, sprinkle with pepper and salt, and dot with bits of butter. Fill the dish with alternate layers of rice and egg, cover with breadcrumbs, and pour in half a cupful of milk. Bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes.

MACARONI BALLS. Take a quarter of a pound of macaroni, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one chopped onion, five ounces of bread crumbs, one egg. Put the macaroni into boiling water, adding the salt when half cooked. Strain and chop fine. Add the parsley, onion, breadcrumbs, and half the egg, and make into balls. Beat up the remainder of the egg, wash the balls over with it, then roll in breadcrumbs and fry in boiling fat. Drain on kitchen paper, and serve garnished with parsley, and slices of fried tomato.

RHUBARB MOULD. To make this, cut up the rhubarb in small pieces, put it into an enamelled saucepan with just enough water to cover it, let it stew til tender, then add about ¼lb brown sugar, stew another ten minutes over a slow fire. Now mix three parts of a penny packet of cornflour with a little water, stir into the rhubarb, and keep stirring until very thick. When done, turn into a wet mould or basin, and stand in a cool place till wanted.

YORKSHIRE PARKIN. ½lb coarse oatmeal, ¼lb flour, ¼lb lard or butter, or some good margarine, 6oz treacle, ¼lb brown sugar, ¾oz ground ginger, ¼oz, or rather less, of mixed spice, quarter of a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, some buttermilk or skimmed milk. Mix the oatmeal and flour together, rub in the butter, and well mix in soda and the rest of the dry ingredients. Warm the treacle and pour it into the mixture, add sufficient milk or buttermilk to form into a stiff paste. Divide into small flat cakes, and bake on a greased tin in a moderate oven.

CHEESE AND POTATO PIE. Boil one pound of potatoes, and mash while hot with two tablespoonfuls of milk, half an ounce of butter, three ounces of grated cheese, pepper and salt to taste. Well butter a pie dish, strew it thickly with breadcrumbs, fill it up with the potato and cheese mixture, and bake for thirty minutes in a hot oven. Turn out onto a hot dish and serve at once.

PLUM SAGO. To every pound of plums allow three and half tablespoonfuls of seed tapioca, two ounces of sugar, one pint of cold water. Soak the tapioca in the water for some hours, boil together until quite transparent, stirring frequently to prevent burning. Stone the plums, and add these and the sugar to the prepared tapioca. Cook very gently until the fruit is quite soft and pour into a mould wetted with cold water. Turn out when cold. Serve with milk or custard.

BAKED ONIONS. Cook some onions in boiling water till they are tender but not broken. Then lay them in a buttered baking dish, pour white sauce over, flavoured with pepper and salt, and sprinkle with breadcrumbs and little lumps of butter. Bake in the oven till brown.

EGG CUTLET. Boil an egg hard. Chop up finely. Add salt and pepper and chopped parsley. Make a good white sauce, mix all together, and form into cutlet shapes. Stick a piece of macaroni in the narrow end of each. Dip in batter, and fry in boiling fat.

SATISFACTION PUDDING. Take one teacupful of flour, one teacup of butter, one teacupful of milk, one teacupful of golden syrup, one teacupful of preserved ginger, and one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. Warm the syrup, milk, and butter together. Sprinkle in enough flour to make a stiff batter. Add the ginger cut into small pieces, and lastly the soda. Place the mixture in a well greased mould, and steam for five hours.

BREAD AND CHEESE OMLETTE. Boil half a pint of milk, then put in half a pint of breadcrumbs, and allow them to soak up all the milk. Add four tablespoonfuls of grated cheese, three well beaten eggs, and salt and pepper to taste. Melt one ounce of margarine in an omellete pan, put in the mixture, and stir it well for a minute over the fire, then roll it to one side of the pan, tipping the pan well up. Keep the omelette in a neat crescent shape. When browned on one side brown on the other.

YANKEE CAKE. Take one pound of flour, one teacupful of sifted sugar, two eggs, four small teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, two small teaspoonfuls of carbonate of soda, and a quarter of a pound of butter. Make the butter soft with the cream of tartar and the warm milk. Bake in a moderate oven.

ONION DUMPLINGS. Chop a quarter of a pound of suet very finely, also a quarter of a pound of onions. Add half a pound of flour, some stock, and a little salt and pepper, and mix all together with a little milk. Make the mixture into small balls, and boil them for thirty minutes in any stock available. These dumplings can be eaten with many kinds of meat.

RHUBARB CHARLOTTE. Grease a pie dish, and cover the bottom with a layer of bread crumbs. Put in a layer of rhubarb, washed, and cut into small pieces. Add brown sugar, a little grated lemon peel, and a sprinkling of powdered ginger. Then put another layer of breadcrumbs and one of rhubarb till the dish is full, finishing with one of breadcrumbs. Put a few bits of margarine on the top, and bake in a moderate oven for an hour.

BOILED DATE PUDDING. Take half a pound of dates, half a pound of flour, quarter of a pound of breadcrumbs, three ounces of suet, one teaspoonful of baking powder. Stone the dates and quarter them, chop the suet, mix with the dry ingredients, the put in the dates. Make into a stiff dough with water, tie in a floured cloth, plunge into boiling water, and keep boiling for two and a half hours. Serve hot with lemon juice and castor sugar.

NUT MEAT PATTIES. Mix a breakfast cupful of finely chopped or grated mixed nuts with half a teacupful of mashed potatoes. Add two teaspoonfuls each of chopped parsley and onion, one ounce of warmed dripping or margarine, and sufficient sauce or good stock to bind all rather loosely. Season it well, and use as a filling for patties or turnovers made of good short or flaky pastry. Bake in a quick oven for about twenty minutes. When the pastry is cooked, they can at once be taken from the oven.

CHEESE RAREBITS. Here is a little savoury for after dinner. Instead of plain cheese, put into a small saucepan a small piece of ordinary cheese. Add to it a tablespoonful of milk and two of nut butter. Mix all together over a low gas. When all is quite hot and melted, season with pepper and salt. Spread on toasted bread. Serve very hot. This is a very tasty and economical dish.

SWISS PUDDING. Take a cup and a half of flour, half a cup of breadcrumbs, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, a dessertspoonful of butter, a tablespoonful of marmalade, a teaspoonful of baking powder, and one egg. Beat up all together thoroughly, put into a pudding basin, cover with greased paper, and steam for two hours.